Navigation and service

Diabetes Mellitus

Current results of the Robert Koch Institute show that a total of 7.2% of adults aged between 18 and 79 have been diagnosed with diabetes at some point in their lives. As compared to the “German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998” (GNHIES98), this represents a 2% increase in prevalence. As yet undiagnosed diabetes can be assumed to be present in a further percentage of adults.

Poorly controlled diabetes or diabetes which remains undiagnosed for a long period of time is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, kidney malfunctions, blindness and foot amputations. These result in a reduced quality of life and life expectancy in affected persons as well as high costs for the health system.

Activities at Robert Koch Institute

Within the framework of the health monitoring programme, the Robert Koch Institute continuously collects data on the prevalence of medically diagnosed diabetes as well as significant complications and comorbidity. Correlations with behaviour (such as diet, physical inactivity and associated overweight) and living conditions (such as personal and regional social factors) are investigated. In addition, markers of glucose metabolism are determined in the interview and examination surveys.


Proceedings of the International Workshop ‘Development of a National Diabetes Surveillance System in Germany – Core Indicators and Conceptual Framework’

Teti A, Gabrys L, Ziese T, Scheidt-Nave S, Heidemann C, Schmidt C, Wolf IK, Du Y, Paprott R, Baumert J, Gregg EW, Geiss L, Mainz J, Jørgensen M, Johnson J, Carinci F, Wild S (2017) BMC Proceedings (11)3. Doi:10.1186/s12919-016-0070-5

All-cause mortality in adults with and without type 2 diabetes: findings from the national health monitoring in Germany.

Röckl S, Brinks R, Baumert J, Paprott R, Du Y, Heidemann C, Scheidt-Nave C (2017) BMJ Open Diab Res Care 2017(5): e000451. doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2017-000451

Temporal changes in predicted risk of type 2 diabetes in Germany: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys 1997–1999 and 2008–2011

Paprott R, Mensink GBM, Schulze MB, Thiele S, Mühlenbruch K, Scheidt-Nave C, Heidemann C (2017) BMJ Open. 2017 Jul 9;7(7):e013058. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013058.

Prevalence, incidence and mortality of diabetes mellitus in adults in Germany – A review in the framework of the Diabetes Surveillanc

Heidemann C, Scheidt-Nave, C (2017) Journal of Health Monitoring 2 (3), 105-129. doi: 10.17886/RKI-GBE-2017-062

Diabetes Surveillance in Germany – Background, concept and prospects

Gabrys L, Schmidt C, Heidemann C, Baumert J, Du Y, Paprott R, Teti A, Wolf IK, Ziese T, Scheidt-Nave C (2017) Journal of Health Monitoring 2(1). doi:10.17886/RKI-GBE-2017-022

Metabolic health in relation to body size: changes in prevalence over time between 1997–99 and 2008–11 in Germany

Truthmann J, Mensink GB, Bosy-Westphal A, Scheidt-Nave C, Schienkiewitz A (2016) PLoS One 23;11(11):e0167159. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167159.

Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score among the general adult population: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys

Paprott R, Mühlenbruch K, Mensink GB, Thiele S, Schulze MB, Scheidt-Nave C, Heidemann C (2016) BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 4(1):e000280. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000280

Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4·4 million participants

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), für das RKI: Du Y, Heidemann C, Scheidt-Nave C (2016) Lancet 9;387(10027):1513-30. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00618-8.

Anthropometric markers and their association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: which marker is best for prediction? Pooled analysis of four German population-based cohort studies and comparison with a nationwide cohort study.

Hartwig S, Kluttig A, Tiller D, Fricke J, Müller G, Schipf S, Völzke H, Schunk M, Meisinger C, Schienkiewitz A, Heidemann C, Moebus S, Pechlivanis S, Werdan K, Kuss O, Tamayo T, Haerting J, Greiser KH (2016) BMJ Open. 6(1):e009266. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009266.

The Prevalence of Renal Failure. Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1).

Girndt M, Trocchi P, Scheidt-Nave C, Markau S, Stang A (2016) Dtsch Arztebl Int. 113(6):85-91. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0085

Time Trends in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adults. Results from three nationwide German examination surveys from 1990–2011

Finger JD, Busch MA, Du Y, Heidemann C,; Knopf H, Kuhnert R, Lampert T, Mensink GBM, Neuhauser H, Schaffrath Rosario A, Scheidt-Nave C, Schienkiewitz A, Truthmann J, Kurth BM (2016) Dtsch Arztebl Int 2016; 113(42): 712-9; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0712

Health-related quality of life in women and men with type 2 diabetes: a comparison across treatment groups.

Schunk M, Reitmeir P, Schipf S, Völzke H, Meisinger C, Ladwig KH, Kluttig A, Greiser KH, Berger K, Müller G, Ellert U, Neuhauser H, Tamayo T, Rathmann W, Holle R. (2015) J Diabetes Complications.29(2):203-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.11.010.

Association Between Hemoglobin A1c and All-Cause Mortality: Results of the Mortality Follow-up of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998

Paprott R, Schaffrath Rosario A, Busch M, Du Y, Thiele S, Scheidt-Nave C, Heidemann C (2015) Diabetes Care 38:1–8. DOI: 10.2337/dc14-1787

Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), für das RKI: Du Y, Heidemann C, Scheidt-Nave C (2015) Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 3: 624–637. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00129-1

Changes in diabetes care indicators: findings from German National Health Interview and Examination Surveys 1997-1999 and 2008-2011

Du Y, Heidemann C, Schaffrath Rosario A, Buttery A, Paprott R, Neuhauser H, Riedel T, Icks A, Scheidt-Nave C (2015) BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 19;3(1):e000135. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2015-000135

Prevalence and determinants of osteoporosis in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Leidig-Bruckner G, Grobholz S, Bruckner T, Scheidt-Nave C, Nawroth P, Schneider JG (2014) BMC Endocrine Disorders 2014,14:33 doi: 10.1186/1472-6823-14-33

Breast-feeding and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis

Jäger S, Jacobs S, Kröger J, Fritsche A, Schienkiewitz A, Rubin D, Boeing H, Schulze MB (2014) Diabetologia 57:1355–1365 doi: 10.1007/s00125-014-3247-3

Pregnancy risk factors for very premature delivery: what role do hypertension, obesity and diabetes play? (Abstract)

Spiegler J, Stichtenoth G, Weichert J, König IR, Schlaud M, v.d. Wense A, Olbertz D, Gurth H, SchiffmannJH, Bohnhorst B, Gortner L, Herting E, Göpel W (2013) Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 288(1): 57-64. doi: 10.1007/s00404-013-2739-6

Type 2 Diabetes. Prevalence and Relevance of Genetic and Acquired Factors for Its Prediction

Rathmann W, Scheidt-Nave C, Roden M, Herder C (2013) Dtsch Arztebl Int 2013. 110(19): 331-7; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2013.0331

Prevalence and temporal trend of known diabetes mellitus. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)

Heidemann C, Du Y, Schubert I, Rathmann W, Scheidt-Nave C (2013) Bundesgesundheitsblatt · 56(5/6):668-677 · DOI 10.1007/s00103-012-1662-5

Regional differences in the prevalence of known Type 2 diabetes mellitus in 45-74 years old individuals: results from six population-based studies in Germany (DIAB-CORE Consortium).

Schipf S, Werner A, Tamayo T, Holle R, Schunk M, Maier W, Meisinger C, Thorand B, Berger K, Mueller G, Moebus S, Bokhof B, Kluttig A, Greiser KH, Neuhauser H, Ellert U, Icks A, Rathmann W, Völzke H (2012) Diabet Med 29(7):e88-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03578.x.

Dietary patterns are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a representative study population of German adults.

Heidemann C, Scheidt-Nave C, Richter A, Mensink GB (2011) Br J Nutr. 106(8):1253-62. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511001504.

Smoking prevalence in Type 2 diabetes: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) and the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES).

Schipf S, Schmidt CO, Alte D, Werner A, Scheidt-Nave C, John U, Steveling A, Wallaschofski H, Völzke H. (2009) Diabet Med; 26:791-797.

Health care utilisation and quality of life in individuals with diabetes and comorbid mental disorders

Hutter N, Scheidt-Nave C, Baumeister H. Health care utilisation and quality of life in individuals with diabetes and comorbid mental disorders. (2009): Gen Hosp Psychiatry; 31:33-35.

Prevalence of known diabetes in German adults aged 25-69 years: results from national surveys over 15 years.

Heidemann C, Kroll L, Icks A, Lampert T, Scheidt-Nave C (2009) Diabetic Medicine 2009; 26: 655-658. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02739.x

Cardiovascular Death and the Metabolic Syndrome: Role of adiposity-signaling hormones and inflammatory markers

Langenberg C, Bergstrom J, Scheidt-Nave C, Pfeilschifter J, Barrett-Connor E (2006) Diabetes Care 29 (6):1363-1369.