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Diabetes Mellitus

Current results of the Robert Koch Institute show that a total of 7.2% of adults aged between 18 and 79 have been diagnosed with diabetes at some point in their lives. As compared to the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (GNHIES98), this represents a 2% increase in prevalence. A further 2.0 % of adults (1.3 million) have an undetected diabetes. According to the current state of knowledge, about 90 % of all diabetes cases can be attributed to type 2 diabetes.

Poorly controlled diabetes or diabetes which remains undiagnosed for a long period of time is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, kidney malfunctions, blindness and foot amputations. These result in a reduced quality of life and life expectancy in affected persons as well as high costs for the health system.

Activities at Robert Koch Institute

Within the framework of health monitoring, the Robert Koch Institute continuously collects data on the prevalence of diabetes as well as of diabetes-specific complications and comorbidities. Associations with behaviour (such as diet, physical inactivity and associated overweight) and living conditions (such as personal and regional social factors) are investigated. In addition, markers of glucose metabolism are measured in the interview and examination surveys.

Within the framework of the research project "Establishment of a National Diabetes Surveillance" at the Robert Koch Institute, a regular indicator-based diabetes reporting based on primary data of the health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute as well as on relevant secondary data at the federal and regional level is being developed.


Time trends in healthy lifestyle among adults in Germany: Results from three national health interview and examination surveys between 1990 and 2011.

Finger JD, Busch MA, Heidemann C, Lange C, Mensink GBM, Schienkiewitz A. PLoS ONE. 2019 14(9): e0222218.

Perceived diabetes risk and related determinants in individuals with high actual diabetes risk: results from a nationwide population-based survey. BMJ Open Diab Res Care2019;7:e000680

Heidemann C, Paprott R, Stühmann LM, Baumert J, Mühlenbruch K, Hansen S, Schiborn C, Zahn D, Gellert P, Scheidt-Nave C. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2019 Jun 21;7(1):e000680. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000680.

Individual and area-level determinants associated with C-reactive protein as a marker of cardiometabolic risk among adults: Results from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 2008-2011.

Steppuhn H, Laußmann D, Baumert J, Kroll L, Lampert T, Plaß D, Scheidt-Nave C, Heidemann C. PLoS One. 2019 Feb 8;14(2):e0211774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211774.

Editorial: Diabetes surveillance in Germany – status and perspectives.

Scheidt-Nave C, Icks A. Journal of Health Monitoring. 2019 4(2): 3-10. DOI 10.25646/5985

Social inequality and diabetes mellitus – developments over time among the adult population in Germany

Heidemann C, Du Y, Baumert J, Paprott R, Lampert T, Scheidt-Nave C. Journal of Health Monitoring 2019 4(2): 11-28. DOI 10.25646/5986

Secondary data in diabetes surveillance – co-operation projects and definition of references on the documented prevalence of diabetes.

Schmidt C, Heidemann C, Rommel A, Brinks R, Claessen H, Dreß J, Hagen B, Hoyer A, Laux G, Pollmanns J, Präger M, Böhm J, Drösler S, Icks A, Kümmel S, Kurz C, Kvitkina T, Laxy M, Maier W, Narres M, Szecsenyi J, Tönnies T, Weyermann M, Paprott R, Reitzle L, Baumert J, Patelakis E, Ziese T. Journal of Health Monitoring 2019 4(2): 50-63. DOI 10.25646/5988

An international comparison of noncommunicable disease.

Reitzle L, Schmidt C, Scheidt-Nave C, Ziese T. Journal of Health Monitoring 2019 4(2): 64-85. DOI 10.25646/5989

Diabetes at a glance – National diabetes surveillance.

Schmidt C, Du Y, Baumert J, Reitzle L, Heidemann C, Paprott R, Ziese T, Scheidt-Nave C. Diabetologe. 2019 March, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 120–127.

Diabetes mellitus in the Medical Rehabilitation – Use of Rehabilitation Services During 2006-2013.

Schmidt C, Baumert J, Gabrys L, Ziese T. Rehabilitation 2019; 58(04): 253-259 DOI: 10.1055/a-0645-9060

Is there an association between DMP enrollment and disability pension in rehabilitants with type 2 diabetes?

Schmidt C, Hagen B, Baumert J, Ziese T. Gesundheitswesen 2018  DOI: 10.1055/a-0586-8851

Projected number of people with diagnosed Type 2 diabetes in Germany in 2040, Diabet Med. 2019 Jan 19

Tönnies T, Röckl S, Hoyer A, Heidemann C, Baumert J, Du Y, Scheidt-Nave C, Brinks R. Diabet Med. 2019 Jan 19. doi: 10.1111/dme.13902. [Epub ahead of print]

Glycaemic status and depressive symptoms among adults in Germany: results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1). Diabet Med. 2018 Jun 11

Weikert B, Buttery AK, Heidemann C, Rieckmann N, Paprott R, Maske UE, Scheidt-Nave C, Busch MA.
Diabet Med. 2018 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/dme.13707. [Epub ahead of print]

Derivation and external validation of a clinical version of the German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) including measures of HbA1c

Mühlenbruch K, Paprott R, Joost HG, Boeing H, Heidemann C, Schulze MB.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2018 Jul 6;6(1):e000524. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2018-000524.

Gender differences in cardiovascular risk profiles and diabetes care among adults with type 2 diabetes in Germany

Du Y, Baumert J, Paprott R, Neuhauser H, Heidemann C, Scheidt-Nave C.
Diabetes Metab. 2018 Jun 8. pii: S1262-3636(18)30115-0. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2018.05.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Diabetes Surveillance in Germany – Background, concept and prospects

Gabrys L, Schmidt C, Heidemann C, Baumert J, Du Y, Paprott R, Teti A, Wolf IK, Ziese T, Scheidt-Nave C (2017) Journal of Health Monitoring 2(1). doi:10.17886/RKI-GBE-2017-022

Metabolic health in relation to body size: changes in prevalence over time between 1997–99 and 2008–11 in Germany

Truthmann J, Mensink GB, Bosy-Westphal A, Scheidt-Nave C, Schienkiewitz A (2016) PLoS One 23;11(11):e0167159. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167159.

Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score among the general adult population: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys

Paprott R, Mühlenbruch K, Mensink GB, Thiele S, Schulze MB, Scheidt-Nave C, Heidemann C (2016) BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 4(1):e000280. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000280

Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC), für das RKI: Du Y, Heidemann C, Scheidt-Nave C (2015) Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 3: 624–637. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00129-1

Changes in diabetes care indicators: findings from German National Health Interview and Examination Surveys 1997-1999 and 2008-2011

Du Y, Heidemann C, Schaffrath Rosario A, Buttery A, Paprott R, Neuhauser H, Riedel T, Icks A, Scheidt-Nave C (2015) BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 19;3(1):e000135. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2015-000135

Prevalence and determinants of osteoporosis in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Leidig-Bruckner G, Grobholz S, Bruckner T, Scheidt-Nave C, Nawroth P, Schneider JG (2014) BMC Endocrine Disorders 2014,14:33 doi: 10.1186/1472-6823-14-33

Breast-feeding and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis

Jäger S, Jacobs S, Kröger J, Fritsche A, Schienkiewitz A, Rubin D, Boeing H, Schulze MB (2014) Diabetologia 57:1355–1365 doi: 10.1007/s00125-014-3247-3

Pregnancy risk factors for very premature delivery: what role do hypertension, obesity and diabetes play? (Abstract)

Spiegler J, Stichtenoth G, Weichert J, König IR, Schlaud M, v.d. Wense A, Olbertz D, Gurth H, SchiffmannJH, Bohnhorst B, Gortner L, Herting E, Göpel W (2013) Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 288(1): 57-64. doi: 10.1007/s00404-013-2739-6

Prevalence and temporal trend of known diabetes mellitus. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)

Heidemann C, Du Y, Schubert I, Rathmann W, Scheidt-Nave C (2013) Bundesgesundheitsblatt · 56(5/6):668-677 · DOI 10.1007/s00103-012-1662-5

Smoking prevalence in Type 2 diabetes: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) and the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES).

Schipf S, Schmidt CO, Alte D, Werner A, Scheidt-Nave C, John U, Steveling A, Wallaschofski H, Völzke H. (2009) Diabet Med; 26:791-797.

Health care utilisation and quality of life in individuals with diabetes and comorbid mental disorders

Hutter N, Scheidt-Nave C, Baumeister H. Health care utilisation and quality of life in individuals with diabetes and comorbid mental disorders. (2009): Gen Hosp Psychiatry; 31:33-35.

Prevalence of known diabetes in German adults aged 25-69 years: results from national surveys over 15 years.

Heidemann C, Kroll L, Icks A, Lampert T, Scheidt-Nave C (2009) Diabetic Medicine 2009; 26: 655-658. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02739.x

Cardiovascular Death and the Metabolic Syndrome: Role of adiposity-signaling hormones and inflammatory markers

Langenberg C, Bergstrom J, Scheidt-Nave C, Pfeilschifter J, Barrett-Connor E (2006) Diabetes Care 29 (6):1363-1369.