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Unit 37: Healthcare-associated Infections, Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance and Consumption

Tim Eckmanns
Muna Abu Sin

Healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens are a threat to health worldwide.

The unit 37 is concerned with surveillance tasks in antimicrobial resistance and consumption, and healthcare-associated outbreaks. Upon request of the supreme health authorities of the Laender, the unit provides support to the competent authorities with outbreak investigations, including management of response. The unit also hosts the scientific secretariat of the Commission for Anti-Infectives, Resistance and Therapy (ART) and the Centre for the Prevention and Control of Antibiotic Resistance.


  • Scientific Secretariat of the Commission for Anti-Infectives, Resistance and Therapy (ART), Preparation of scientific content for meetings of the ART Commission and for consulting
  • Assistance to the Federal Ministry of Health for the development and implementation of the German Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy (DART)
  • Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ARS)) and antibiotic consumption (Surveillance of Antibiotic Consumption (AVS))
  • Analysis and interpretation of data on antibiotic resistance and antibiotic consumption
  • Development of concepts and algorithms for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption
  • Development of approaches to document antibiotic consumption in hospitals and outpatient surgery facilities (§ 23.4 IfSG)
  • Cooperating partner of the National Reference Centre for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, staphylococci and enterococci, systemic mycoses, and surveillance of healthcare-associated infections
  • Analysis, evaluation and feedback from the German Protection Against Infection Act (IfSG) data on C. difficile, multidrug-resistant pathogens such as MRSA, adenoviruses, and outbreaks of healthcare-associated infections
  • Continuous development of case definitions, transmission and evaluation criteria for reportable multidrug-resistant pathogens
  • Initiation and management of epidemiological studies of antibiotic resistance, antibiotic consumption and healthcare-associated infections
  • Coordination and evaluation of activities, projects and recommendations on antibiotic resistance and healthcare-associated infections in Germany and internationally within the "Centre for the Prevention and Control of Antibiotic Resistance"
  • Support as partners of the European networks EARS-Net and ESAC
  • Digital Epidemiology and its ethical, legal and social implications (DELSI)
  • Estimation of burden of health care associated infection by calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALYs): Research Report: Burden of Healthcare Associated Infection (BHAI) - evidence-based and comorbidity-adjusted outcome trees for estimation of burden of disease (8.4.2016)

Date: 24.06.2021


  • Wulff A, Baier C, Ballout S et al.; Infection Control Study Group (for RKI Zacher B, Eckmanns T) (2021): Transformation of microbiology data into a standardised data representation using OpenEHR.
    Sci. Rep. 11 (1): 10556. Epub May 18. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-89796-y. more

  • Willrich N, Stern D, Böttcher S, Biegala W, Albrecht S, Oh DY, Abu Sin M, Mielke M, Rexroth U, Eckmanns T, Hamouda O, Seifried J (2021): Erfassung der SARS-CoV-2-Testzahlen in Deutschland.
    Epid Bull (24): 3-10. doi: 10.25646/8586 (online vorab 10. Juni 2021). more

  • von Laer A, N'Guessan MA, Touré FS, Nowak K, Groeschner K, Ignatius R, Friesen J, Tomczyk S, Leendertz FH, Eckmanns T, Akoua-Koffi C (2021): Implementation of automated blood culture with quality assurance in a resource-limited setting.
    Front. Med. (Lausanne) 8: 627513. Epub May 21. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.627513. more

  • Suwono B, Eckmanns T, Kaspar H, Merle R, Zacher B, Kollas C, Weiser AA, Noll I, Feig M, Tenhagen BA (2021): Cluster analysis of resistance combinations in Escherichia coli from different human and animal populations in Germany 2014–2017.
    PLoS One 16 (1): e0244413. Epub Jan 20. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244413. more

  • Seifried J, Böttcher S, Oh DY, Michel J, Nitsche A, Jenny MA, Wieler LH, Antão E-M, Jung-Sendzik T, Dürrwald R, Diercke M, Haas W, Abu Sin M, Eckmanns T, Hamouda O, Mielke M (2021): Was ist bei Antigentests zur Eigenanwendung (Selbsttests) zum Nachweis von SARS-CoV-2 zu beachten?
    Epid Bull (8): 3–9. doi: 10.25646/8040 (online vorab 22. Februar 2021). more

  • Seifried J, Hoffmann A, Reda S, Böttcher S, Abu Sin M, Hofmann A, Noll I, von Laer A, Reuß A, Oh DY, Albrecht S, Stern D, Willrich N, Staat D, Zacher B, Schneider M, Feig M, Nitsche A, Rieck T, Rexroth U, Eckmanns T, Hamouda O (2021): Erfassung der Labortestungen auf SARS-CoV-2 in Deutschland.
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt − Gesundheitsforschung − Gesundheitsschutz 64 (4): 403–411. Epub Apr 15. doi: 10.1007/s00103-021-03307-y. more

  • Schweickert B, Klingeberg A, Haller S, Richter D, Schmidt N, Abu Sin M, Eckmanns T (2021): COVID-19-Ausbrüche in deutschen Alten- und Pflegeheimen.
    Epid Bull (18): 3–29. doi: 10.25646/8174 (online vorab 6. April 2021). more

  • Schubert G, Achi V, Ahuka S, Belarbi E, Bourhaima O, Eckmanns T, Johnstone S, Kabore F, Kra O, Mendes A, Ouedraogo AS, Poda A, Some AS, Tomczyk S, Couacy-Hymann E, Kayembe JM, Meda N, Muyembe Tamfum JJ, Ouangraoua S, Page N, Venter M, Leendertz FH, Akoua-Koffi C; ANDEMIA consortium (for RKI Abu Sin M, Gröschner K, Köhler S, Niendorf S, Nowak K, Pitzinger P, Sachse A, Vietor AC) (2021): The African Network for Improved Diagnostics, Epidemiology and Management of Common Infectious Agents.
    BMC Infect. Dis. 21 (1): 539. Epub Jun 7. doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-06238-w. more

  • Said D, Willrich N, Ayobami O, Noll I, Eckmanns T, Markwart R (2021): The epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii complex in Germany (2014–2018): an analysis of data from the national Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance system.
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control 10 (1): 45. Epub Mar 1. doi: 10.1186/s13756-021-00909-8. more

  • Rommel A, von der Lippe E, Plaß D, Ziese T, Diercke M, an der Heiden M, Haller S, Wengler A, on behalf of the BURDEN 2020 Study Group (2021): The COVID-19 disease burden in Germany in 2020 – years of life lost to death and disease over the course of the pandemic.
    Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 118 (9): 145–151. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2021.014. more

  • Reuß A, Klingeberg A, Schmidt N, Eckmanns T, Zacher B (2021): Einfluss der COVID-19-Pandemie auf die Anzahl der gemäß IfSG meldepflichtigen Nachweise von Erregern mit Antibiotikaresistenzen und C. difficile-Infektionen.
    Epid Bull (7): 8–11. doi: 10.25646/8026. more

  • Reichert F, Schulz M, Mertens E, Lachmann R, Aebischer A (2021): Reemergence of scabies driven by adolescents and young adults, Germany, 2009–2018.
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. 27 (6): 1693–1696. Epub May 6. doi: 10.3201/eid2706.203681. more

  • Meinen A, Reuß A, Willrich N, Feig M, Noll I, Eckmanns T, Al-Nawas B, Markwart R (2021): Antimicrobial resistance and the spectrum of pathogens in dental and oral-maxillofacial infections in hospitals and dental practices in Germany.
    Front. Microbiol. 12: 676108. Epub Jun 2. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.676108. more

  • Markwart R, Willrich N, Eckmanns T, Werner G, Ayobami O (2021): Low proportion of linezolid and daptomycin resistance among bloodborne vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Europe.
    Front. Microbiol. 12: 664199. Epub May 31. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.664199. more

  • Markus I, Steffen G, Lachmann R, Marquis A, Schneider T, Tomczyk S, Koppe U, Rohde AM, Schink SB, Seifried J, Domaszewska T, Rexroth U, An der Heiden M (2021): COVID-19: cross-border contact tracing in Germany, February to April 2020.
    Euro Surveill. 26 (10): 2001236. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.10.2001236. more

  • Seifried J, Böttcher S, Oh DY, Michel J, Nitsche A, Jenny MA, Wieler LH, Antão E-M, Jung-Sendzik T, Dürrwald R, Diercke M, Haas W, Abu Sin M, Eckmanns T, Hamouda O, Mielke M (2021): Was ist bei Antigentests zur Eigenanwendung (Selbsttests) zum Nachweis von SARS-CoV-2 zu beachten?
    Epid Bull (8): 3–9. doi: 10.25646/8040 (online vorab 22. Februar 2021). more

  • Halm A, Grote U, an der Heiden M, Hamouda O, Schaade L, Rexroth U; RKI-Lagezentrums-Gruppe (2021): Das Lagemanagement des Robert Koch-Instituts während der COVID-19-Pandemie und der Austausch zwischen Bund und Ländern.
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt – Gesundheitsforschung – Gesundheitsschutz 64 (4): 418–425. doi: 10.1007/s00103-021-03294-0. more

  • Grote U, Arvand M, Brinkwirth S, Brunke M, Buchholz U, Eckmanns T, von Kleist M, Niebank M, Ruehe B, Schulze K, Stoliaroff-Pépin A, Thanheiser M, Schaade L, Said D, Haas W (2021): Maßnahmen zur Bewältigung der COVID-19-Pandemie in Deutschland: nichtpharmakologische und pharmakologische Ansätze.
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt – Gesundheitsforschung – Gesundheitsschutz 64 (4): 435–445. doi: 10.1007/s00103-021-03306-z. more

  • Fleischmann C, Reichert F, Cassini A, Horner R, Harder T, Markwart R, Tröndle M, Savova Y, Kissoon N, Schlattmann P, Reinhart K, Allegranzi B, Eckmanns T (2021): Global incidence and mortality of neonatal sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Arch. Dis. Child. 106 (8): 745-752. Epub Jan 22. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-320217. more

  • Domaszewska T, Karo B, Preuß U, Kollan C, Reuß A, Blank HP, Brodhun B, Hauer B, Altmann D, Fiebig L, Haas W, Perumal N (2021): Vollständigkeit der Tuberkulose-Meldungen in Deutschland in den Jahren 2013–2017: Ergebnisse einer Inventurstudie.
    Epid Bull (11): 8–10. doi: 10.25646/8041. more

  • Buchholz U, Abu Sin M, Stoliaroff-Pépin A, Michel J, Nitsche A, Schaade L, Haas W, Bosse I (2021): Spektrum diagnostischer Proben zum Nachweis von SARS-CoV-2, Selbstabnahme durch Patient*innen und möglicher Einsatz von Antigen-Tests.
    Epid Bull (17): 15–26. doi: 10.25646/8309 (online vorab 19. April 2021). more

  • Brandl M, Hoffmann A, Willrich N, Reuß A, Reichert F, Walter J, Eckmanns T, Haller S (2021): Bugs that can resist antibiotics but not men: gender-specific differences in notified infections and colonisations in Germany, 2010–2019.
    Microorganisms 9 (5): 894. Epub Apr 22. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9050894. more

  • Alpers K, Haller S, Buchholz U; RKI Feldteam (2021): Untersuchung von SARS-CoV-2-Ausbrüchen in Deutschland durch Feldteams des Robert Koch-Instituts, Februar–Oktober 2020.
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt – Gesundheitsforschung – Gesundheitsschutz 64 (4): 446–453. Epub Mar 17. doi: 10.1007/s00103-021-03296-y. more

  • Achi CR, Ayobami O et al. (2021): Operationalising One Health in Nigeria: reflections from a high-level expert panel discussion commemorating the 2020 World Antibiotics Awareness Week.
    Front. Public Health 9: 673504. Epub May 31. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.673504. more